High Fiber and AGP treatments are commonly included in diets for commercial pig production.
Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) have been used extensively in swine production as a means to improve growth performance by reducing gastrointestinal disease. Resulting in spared nutrients that would otherwise be used for inflammatory responses. As well as improving metabolic efficiency (Jacela, J.Y., Derouchey, J.M., et al 2009). In-feed AGPs can decrease microbial populations and alter microbial compositions in the gut and feces due to their antimicrobial properties. Such changes produce metabolic impacts due to alterations in the microbial metabolism of nutrients within the large intestine.
However, recent concerns regarding antibiotic resistance and the significant health risks associated with this, have led to strict worldwide regulations on AGP use for animal production. Therefore, the search for natural growth promoters that can act as alternatives and improve feed efficiency has become a priority. Despite all of the research done on this topic, there are still significant knowledge gaps when it comes to understanding how AGPs affect feed metabolism in the hindgut. This continues to be hurdle when it comes to developing true alternative that can mitigate disease and enhance productive parameters through optimal gut health.
High-fiber (HF) coproducts, such as wheat middling (WM), are commonly used as low-cost feed ingredients for grow–finish pigs (Jaworski, N.W., Lærke, H.N. et al 2015). Although grow–finish pigs have the capacity to tolerate greater fiber volumes compared to nursery pigs, this practice can still reduce nutrient utilization and compromise their growth performance (Salyer, J.A., et al 2012).
The influence of fiber on pig metabolism and growth varies according to the site where it acts. For example, within the small intestine, fiber affects nutrient digestion and absorption by interfering with digestive enzymes’ function. It also interacts with nutrient receptors and transporters (Capuano, E. et al 2017). In the large intestine, fiber has extensive bidirectional interactions with resident microbes. Fermentable fiber serves as the raw material for gut microbes to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are an energy source for colonocytes and possess a significant role in the hosts’ energy metabolism (Jha, R.; Berrocoso, et al.,2016) . Fiber can also alter microbiome composition which indirectly affects the production of microbial metabolites in the hindgut and feces. This includes SCFAs, secondary bile acids, biogenic amines, and other metabolites capable of regulating metabolism, immunity, and endocrine signaling.
Fiber and AGPs commonly coexist in commercial swine diets. Since fiber and AGPs share gut microbiota and microbial metabolism as their targets of action in the hindgut (Choo, J.M.; Kanno., et al 2017) an interaction between fiber and AGPs in hindgut metabolism may occur. However, very few studies have evaluated this topic up to date.
The present study aimed to assess the metabolic interactions between bacitracin and WM in the feces of grow–finish pigs through comprehensive metabolomic analysis to reveal the metabolic signature related to growth in response to dietary intervention.
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Source: Abstract taken and modified from “Identification of Independent and Shared Metabolic Responses to High-Fiber and Antibiotic Treatments in Fecal Metabolome of Grow–Finish Pigs.”
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